Title I, Part A (Title I) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, as amended (ESEA) provides financial assistance to local educational agencies (LEAs) and schools with high numbers or high percentages of children from low-income families to help ensure that all children meet challenging state academic standards. Federal funds are currently allocated through four statutory formulas that are based primarily on census poverty estimates and the cost of education in each state.
Title I is designed to help students served by the program to achieve proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards. Title I schools with percentages of students from low-income families of at least 40 percent may use Title I funds, along with other Federal, State, and local funds, to operate a “school-wide program” to upgrade the instructional program for the whole school. Title I schools with less than the 40 percent school-wide threshold or that choose not to operate a school-wide program offer a “targeted assistance program” in which the school identifies students who are failing, or most at risk of failing, to meet the State’s challenging academic achievement standards. Both school-wide and targeted assistance programs must use instructional strategies based on scientifically based research and implement parental involvement activities.
Title 1 dollars can only be used to supplement the educational programs that are presently being implemented by the school and/or district. Title 1 dollars cannot be used to supplant, replace, or provide programming that should be part of the school and/or district budget.
Also Known As: Grants to States for Education of Children with Disabilities, Part B, Sec. 611
The Grants to States program provides formula grants to assist public schools in meeting the excess costs of providing special education and related services to children with disabilities. In order to be eligible for funding, states must serve all children with disabilities between the ages of 3 through 21, except that they are not required to serve children aged 3 through 5 or 18 through 21 years if services are inconsistent with state law or practice or the order of any court. A state that does not provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to children with disabilities aged 3 through 5 cannot receive base payment funds attributable to this age group or any funds under the Preschool Grants program.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) also requires each state to maintain its level of state financial support for special education and related services from one year to the next. This requirement is commonly referred to as the state “maintenance of effort, or MOE.” The IDEA also contains a local “maintenance of effort” requirement. Under this requirement, each LEA must maintain its total expenditures, including state and local contributions, on special education from one year to the next.
Funds under this program are combined with state and local funds to provide FAPE to children with disabilities. Permitted expenditures include the salaries of special education teachers and costs associated with related services personnel, such as speech therapists and psychologists. States may use funds reserved for other state-level activities for a variety of specified activities, including: support and direct services; technical assistance and personnel preparation; assisting LEAs in providing positive behavioral interventions and supports; and improving the use of technology in the classroom.
Also Known As: Title II, Part A: Academic Improvement and Teacher Quality
The purpose of the program is to increase academic achievement by improving the quality of professional practice. This program is carried out by: increasing the number of highly qualified teachers and para professionals in classrooms; increasing the number of highly qualified principals and assistant principals in schools; and increasing the effectiveness of professionals by holding LEAs and schools accountable for improvements in student academic achievement.
Programs structured under Title II A must be based on a needs assessment, and, among other things, be aligned with state academic content standards, student academic achievement standards, and state assessments (for formula grants).